Pipelines used to transport large quantities of oil, petroleum products and liqueed petroleum gases in the same direction. Its advantages: the shortest track in comparison with other species; possibility of laying any distance between any objects; continuity, ensuring regular deliveries and uninterrupted supply of consumers without the cost of creating large storage of cargo on routes ends; minimal loss of oil and oil products; highest mechanization and automation. Disadvantages of pipeline transport: large metal consumption and the “rigidity” of transportation routes. The share of this type of transport of oil has been steadily increasing. Oil pipelines are underground and ground. Both types have their advantages. Onshore pipelines easier to build and operate. In case of accidents it is signicantly easier to detect and remove damage on the pipe, held above ground. At the same time the underground pipelines are less aected by changes in weather conditions, which is especially important for Russia, where the dierence of summer and winter temperatures in some regions. Its advantages: the shortest track in comparison with other species; possibility of laying any distance between any objects; continuity, ensuring regular deliveries and uninterrupted supply of consumers without the cost of creating large storage of cargo on routes ends; minimal loss of oil and oil products; highest mechanization and automation. Disadvantages of pipeline transport: large metal consumption and the “rigidity” of transportation routes. The share of this type of transport of oil has been steadily increasing.
Water transport can carry crude oil, petroleum products and liqueed gases in any quantity in the tank barges and tankers as well as in small containers; has a relatively low rate of delivery, in addition, we need a mooring and tank farms for the receipt and shipment of oil cargo (see; The oil wharf, Stender). Maritime transport of oil – the only kind that provides intercontinental transport links oers unlimited bandwidth. Oil and oil products loaded into tankers from the shore, and unloading are using the ship’s pumps and pipelines laid in the tank and along the deck. However, the super tankers with deadweight of 250 thousand tons, as a rule, simply cannot enter the port, when fully loaded. They are lled with oshore and unload, pumping the liquid contents to smaller tankers. Another type of oil transportation – by rail: This is a quick way to season. In our country, it is used to deliver oil by rail requires 10 times more eort than for its transport by pipeline. Road Transport provides transport for short distances from large to small tank farms and then to consumers. It features high maneuverability, mobility, maneuverability. However, they are delivered to small volumes of goods are inevitable empty runs of tankers are subject to availability, technical condition and branching on the service area petro-cargoes roads. We also use Wagon and Truck to do the transportation of Oil and oil products loaded into tankers from the shore, and unloading and the It features high maneuverability, mobility, maneuverability. The pipeline passes through the Russian provinces of Bryansk, Smolensk, Tver, Novgorod and Leningrad. The Ust -Luga terminal was selected as the termination point of the pipeline for several reasons. The Gulf of Finland, the easternmost realm of the Baltic Sea, is characterized by a short iceover period and can be easily accessed by other major ports situated in Northern Europe. Another advantage is that the Ust – Luga port oers congestion-free transportation unlike the congested St. Petersburg Port. The port is also being developed with modern and new infrastructure. Further, there is a plan to build highways and railway lines to beef up transportation infrastructure between the port and important commercial centers located in north western part of the country.
BALTIC PIPELINE SYSTEM
Baltic Pipeline System-2 (BPS-2) is a Russian oil supply system built and operated by Transneft, a government-owned company responsible for oil pipelines in the country, in conjunction and full cooperation with Oil Reneries and Tank farms. The pipeline is 727miles (1,170km) long, running from the Unecha town of Unechsky District, Bryansk Oblast, to Ust-Luga, Leningrad Oblast, via Smolensk, Russia. The oil pipeline is being built in two stages. The rst stage was ocially commissioned in March 2012 by the current Russian President Vladimir Putin. The second stage reached completion in December 2013. The construction cost of BPS-2 is estimated at $4bn. Transneft, Rosneftbunker, are the joint operators of BPS-2 trunk line.
TECHNICAL DETAILS OF THE RUSSIAN PIPELINE
Stage one of the Baltic Pipeline System-2 is designed to carry 30 million tons of oil per year. The completion of the second stage will enable the pipeline to transport additional 20 million tons of oil per annum. “Stage one of the Baltic Pipeline System-2 is designed to carry 30 million tons of oil per year.”Diameter of the pipeline for the rst 473 miles (7612km) is 42in, and thereafter becomes 40in. The project includes a total of eight pumping stations. Two new pumping stations were constructed and two existing pump stations were overhauled in the rst stage. The remaining stations will be added in the second stage of the project. The number 7 pumping station will be provided with an oil depot with a capacity to store 80,000m3 of oil.